Create a tutorial that provides detailed instructions on how to complete an assignment in the assignment bank. It can be an assignment you have already completed or one you will complete this week. It can be in video format, or written format with screenshots and photos.

Make a blog post and tag it as directed under “Help Someone Else Do this Assignment” instructions found on each assignment page. Be sure to include both the assignment tag and the tutorial tag. Below is an example, but each assignment’s tags are specific to that individual assignment.



Do 10 stars worth of Mashup/Remix assignments.

Daily Creates

Do two this week

Due 11:59 pm on Monday, December 4, 2017


Video – The Documentary

Reading movies

This week we’re moving from audio to video. We’ve been looking at related aspects – photography, sound, design – all along, but now we’re going to look at cinematic camerawork, and how it all comes together.

For starters, read Roger Ebert’s How the Read a Movie to get some basics of film analysis.

The following are part of Tony Zhou’s great series, Every Frame a Painting in which he analyzes details of film making. The entire series is worth watching and highly recommended, but I’m going to point out these in particular:

Joel & Ethan Coen – Shot | Reverse Shot

Memories of Murder (2003) – Ensemble Staging

Akira Kurosawa – Composing Movement

In Praise of Chairs


  • Watch a documentary film about superheroes, and complete either the video essay assignment, or a written analysis of your film using what we have learned from the Reading Movies activities above. You can watch any documentary that interests you, as long as it relates in some way to the subject of superheroes. I found some interesting ones on Amazon Prime Video but you may find them anywhere you view videos. Just be sure to write an analysis of the film in video or written form.
  • Begin work on completing a Video Documentary assignment in which you will create your own short documentary film. (This one is difficult and you have two weeks to complete it). You may want to discuss ideas on how to proceed with the course instructor.
  • Do an additional six stars of video projects.
  • Daily Creates – do 2 this week.

Commenting – Keep it up! It makes the world go ’round.

Assignments are due Wednesday Nov. 8th.

Superhero Internet Radio Show

10/09/17 – 10/23/17

This week and next we will be working on producing Superhero internet radio show. The show will be broadcast on the internet-based ds106radio the week after they are due. (Completed project is due by 11:59pm on Sunday, Oct. 23, 2017)

Group Radio Show Guidelines

The radio show will be a group project with all members of the class in one group. You will have two weeks to complete the project. These are the specifications:

  • All group members must contribute to the final radio show. Create a Google Document for planning and collaboration. If you invite me to be part of it, I can offer advice and input for developing your show. This is not required, however I recommend doing this because we are trying to learn how to work together as an online team.
  • The total show should be around 20 minutes long, equal at least 6-7 minutes per person in the group.
  • The show must include at least 3 ds106 radio bumpers (they can be specific to the show’s superhero theme or general bumpers for ds106radio) that are produced by group members.
  • The show must include at least 3 commercial advertisements or PSAs. The show must include bumpers to transition between program and the ads.
  • The show must relate in some way to the “Superhero” theme of the class. How you go about that is up to you. You can create works of fiction, or you could create a show based on non-fiction research you have done about the superhero genre. We are looking for creativity and original content.
  • The show can contain music, but it should follow copyright guidelines. You can create original music, use creative commons music that grants you a license to use it, or you can do a remix of popular music that only includes short excerpts.
  • Blog about your process and progress. We expect every member to blog at least once during the first week about progress; we expect every member to blog at least once during the second week about the completion of the project. These should be substantive blog posts in which you explain what progress/decisions the group had made, what individual work you’ve been doing, what tools/tech you’re using, what’s going well, what’s not working, etc.
  • Each group member needs to create at least one promotional graphic in the form of a poster/bumper sticker/logo etc. for their show segment during the first week — a little splash of design work.
  • Consider what a show should sound like. There needs to be an opening and a closing. You may need transitional elements; you may need to include sound effects. You will need to do audio production. This may include editing sections together, layering in background sounds, incorporating music, etc.

As you found out during Audio week, audio editing is time consuming. Plan to be done early and you will probably be done on time.

Summary of Deadlines and Assignments for the Next 2 Weeks

Due by 11:59pm 10/15/17 (Summarized, as usual, in a weekly post):

  1. Radio Show Progress: A blog post on your radio show process and progress.
  2. Radio Show Design Project: A blog post for your radio show poster/bumper sticker/logo etc. Write this post just like you would an assignment post — with the same amount of detail we usually expect!
  3. Commenting: Online interaction is a must-have professional skill. If you aren’t getting enough feedback on your work, it is because you aren’t giving enough feedback to others. Increase your interactions with the DS106 community by tweeting and leaving individual blog comments and questions throughout the week.
  4.  Everyone needs to do a better job of reading/commenting/questioning other students’ work. You are required to comment on at least 12 posts/tweets by other students (including those outside of KSU) this week (including Twitter tweets). You MUST link to your posts/tweet commentary in your weekly summary by linking or embedding them in the summary narrative.
  5. Audio Assignments:  Complete 10 stars. Try to do at least 5 stars that can be used in your piece or segment of the radio show (bumpers, commercials, story developkment etc.). We are assigning these stars this week so that you make progress on developing content for your shows!

Due by Midnight 10/23/17 (Summarized, as usual, in a weekly post):

  1. Completed radio show: Post it to SoundCloud. Provide a link in your summary.
  2. Radio Show Progress: Second blog post summarizing your radio show process and progress.
  3. Commenting: Repeat the commenting assignment from week 1.
  4. Daily Creates: Complete 3 TDCs this week.

Audio resources:

You can find additional audio resources in the Open Ds106 syllabus (

If you find other helpful hints, you can share them over the next few weeks via Twitter, using the tag #ds106 and/or #ds106radio

Digital Audio – Week 6

Listen: “The Man From Krypton.” This example of audio storytelling comes from my childhood in the 1970s. Picture a simpler time when kids were less immersed in media than they are today. High tech was a portable vinyl record player and a collection of these kinds of recordings. Think about how the sounds, the sound effects, music and the changes in sound, tell you what is going on, how they create a sense of place, a sense of space and a sense of atmosphere. As a boy, I listened to this story over and over again. Good audio can cause us to use our imagination to “see” the story unfold. Does it still work in our media-saturated culture today? Write a reflection blog post on the effectiveness of this piece.

Listen: DS106 has an internet radio station – DS106 Radio – on Tuesday, Wednesday & Thursday evening this week at 7:30 CST some radio programs will be airing. Pick one of these nights and tune in to the channel, if even for only a few minutes. Whatever your schedule allows. Follow the #ds106radio tweets, and join in the conversation. At a minimum, announce that you are also listening in a tweet with the #ds106radio hashtag. You must tweet to get credit for this. Ideally, you should also comment on the storytelling you are hearing. If this seems odd to you, look up live-tweeting. It is a real thing if it is in the dictionary, right? I want you to have the experience of live-tweeting to a radio show with others outside of our classroom.

Think: Examine the Audio Resources page and think about what role audio plays in telling a good story. It might be for the radio, it might be in film. Sound makes a big difference. But they say the best sound is that which doesn’t draw attention to itself. Done well, you don’t notice it. Discuss in a blog post with the topic of telling stories with sound.

Experiment With Sound: Using either Audacity, Adobe Audition, or similar audio editing tools, create a radio bumper for the “DS106 Radio” station. What is a bumper, you ask? Head on over to Wikipedia and read about radio bumpers. The radio bumper is an assignment in the Assignment Bank (so you should tag your blog post correctly when you’re done). Extra Internet Points for incorporating the superhero theme into your bumper recording.

Also, create a short audio introduction to your superhero character that you have previously created. This introduction to the Powerpuff Girls has animation included, but the sound track gives you a good idea of what is possible. (We will save the animation part for another time, unless of course, you are feeling extra ambitious!)

Complete 3 Daily Creates: You must complete and correctly tag at least three daily creates this week. Make sure you also blog your TDCs.

Assignment Bank – 10 Stars of Audio Assignments: Complete 10 Stars of Assignments from the Audio Assignments category. In your work, include one of these two assignments: The sound effects story (3 ½ stars) or The contest that nobody could win (2 ½ stars) as part of your 10 stars this week. For the sound effects assignment, it can be a lot of fun creating your own sound effects, but you may also use to find free sound effects for this project.

Please be sure to create a separate blog post for each of the Assignment Bank assignments you complete. Make sure all your completed assignments are uploaded to SoundCloud, and write up a post for each assignment in which you embed that audio from SoundCloud. You need to tag each assignment separately and correctly, so it refers back to the assignment page as a past example.

Radio Show Ideas: In a few weeks, we will be creating a radio show to air on the internet radio station. Ideally, this program will incorporate in some way, our theme of superheroes. Write one blog post discussing ideas you think would be good for a radio program to be created by our class.

Commenting: Comment, comment, and comment some more. You should all be looking at each others’ work and leaving feedback. We recommend going to the course site every day and leaving feedback on a few posts. That’s the main way we do class participation in this course.

Weekly Summary: Write a weekly summary of your week’s activities. This should refer to other blog posts created throughout the week, discuss online activities such as tweeting and commenting on other blogs, and also mention the Daily Creates you completed.

Digital Photography – Week 5

This week we are going to explore digital photography. K-State Polytechnic owns several DSLR cameras that are available for student use. If you have never used a digital SLR before, this is your week to learn something new. You may check one out from me if you make an appointment to do so with me on campus. Also, as K-State students, you have access to a top-tier research library. I want you to do some reading and reflection on digital photography. (Here is a good DSLR simulator to try, to help you understand the basic controls.)

  1. Reading Assignment: The Death of Photography via The Guardian
    • Have you ever been busy photographing or video recording an event and then later don’t remember the experience of being there? Do you stop and really think about what will make a good photograph before you make a photograph, or do you just take a bunch and pick through to find a good one? Reflect on the Guardian article, and write about your approach as well as where you think the art of photography is heading. Are we better or worse off, with the changes to the process that digital photography brings? Is the career of photography coming to an end, or is it just being reinvented? Why?
  2. Look at some good photographs: Spotlight on Jim Richardson
    • Jim Richardson is a photographer for National Geographic who lives in Lindsborg, Kansas. Use your internet skills to search for more examples of Jim’s work (hint: he has a business called Small World Gallery, and he posts work on Instagram & Flickr). Write about what you saw of Jim’s work in a blog post with regard to the elements of design we learned about last year in Visual Literacy class. (By the way, what are those elements of design?) For full credit, embed examples of his work in your blog with commentary. For super-duper, extra-extra credit, mosey on down to Lindsborg and visit the Small World Gallery in person. If you’re lucky, you might actually meet Jim.
  3. Make some photographs
    • Read through Jim Richardson’s photography tips. See the DS106 handbook section on photography. Also, check out Scott Kelby’s eBook The Best Of The Digital Photography Book Series (this link requires your K-State login), as well as one of the print Kelby photography books (available in library or from me). The chapter on landscape and nature photography is really good. There’s bound to be something in there you can try out using Photoshop. While you are on the Safari website reading the Kelby eBook, take a few minutes to do a search for other photography eBooks that might be useful. Explore those resources for more photography tips as well.
    • Find a willing subject and shoot a beautiful portrait using natural light. No selfies! For more info, see Kelby’s chapter on portrait photography.
    • Do two or three other photography recipes or techniques you learned from the readings. Personally, I enjoy shooting flowers the Kelby way.
    • After spending time reading about photography and experimenting with some of the techniques you have learned about, write a blog post that summarizes the experience. What techniques did you do? Did it work out well or not? Why or why not?
  4. Assignments
    • Pick either Life of a Superhero or It’s a Bird, It’s a Plane
    • Do an additional 6 stars worth of visual assignments, and involve our Superhero theme in one assignment in some way.
    • At least one assignment must involve photo manipulation using Photoshop.
    • Be sure to write a post for each assignment describing your thinking, your process, and evaluating the results, and be sure to tag it with the assignment tags.
  5. Complete a minimum of 3 Daily Creates this week.
  6. Comment on blogs of other students doing these assignments. Focus on K-State students and everyone else doing DS106. Don’t forget about the conversation on Twitter either. Tag your tweets with #ds106 and reply to tweets you see with these tags. This online conversation is part of online community citizenship, and is required for the course. Don’t be shy about this, it feels good to get feedback from others and to give feedback as well.
  7. Write a summary post of the week’s activities and submit the link to the assignment on K-State Online. Be sure to include links to the various posts you have made during the week, your daily creates, and include a discussion of the online conversations you have been having with others in DS106. Make this summary post interesting by including example pictures and graphics you have made.


Storytelling With Words and Images – Week 4

Watch the very first Superman Cartoon (1941) Practice critical thinking by asking and answering as best you are able, the 5 key questions of media literacy about this cartoon. Those questions are:

  • Who created this message?
  • What creative techniques are used to attract my attention?
  • How might different people understand this message differently from me?
  • What lifestyles, values, points of view are included; or omitted in this message?
  • Why is this message being sent?

Read How Ancient Legends Gave Birth to Modern Superheroes.

Look at the work of Greg Guillemin, a French artist who paints behind the scenes images of superheroes and other cartoon characters. (Some of these are risqué.) Check out the Secret Life of Superheroes and also a collection of his work on Pinterest Think about how answers to the previously mentioned key questions of media literacy might look with this body of work. Discuss.

Watch Kurt Vonnegut on the Shapes of Stories


Develop an original superhero no one has ever heard of before. Include images from either original drawings or mash-ups and photo composites of existing heroes presented in a new way. Tell us the superhero’s name, alter-ego, powers and skills, physical description, biography, nemesis, and motto or battle cry.

Complete the photo editing assignment Superhero Your Friend. By all means, get creative with this one.

Complete the animated gif assignment Say It Like Peanut Butter, but instead of simply using your favorite or least favorite movie, choose instead your favorite or least favorite movie with a superhero theme.

Complete three more assignments from the assignment bank, each from a different category (for example: writing, audio, and video assignments). A good practice I like to use is clicking on a category, then sorting by the examples. Using his approach will help you find the most popular assignments that have been completed the most often.

Do three daily creates this week.

Comment on the work of others. This is really important in building our learning community. Look at the feeds of UMW and KSU students regularly so you can find what others are posting. Visit the posts of several and leave good comments. Another place to give feedback is searching for the #ds106 hashtag on twitter. By being active out there you should also be receiving feedback on your work as well.

Write a weekly summary that includes links to each of the separate posts of the activities you completed this week. Be sure to include your Daily Create work, as well as a description of your commenting activities. Submit a link to the summary to K-State Online.



Find Your Superpower – Week 3

Some superheroes have actual super-powers and some use technology to make themselves into super-humans. I suspect most of us, unless we’ve been bitten by radio-active spiders or come from a distant planet, will need to use technology just like Tony Stark.

Iron Man Suit
Inside the Iron Man Suit

So let’s start learning to use some technology. This week’s assignments include:

  • Introduce yourself on Twitter to the learning community using the #ds106 hashtag. Also find some other learners to interact with by searching for the #ds106 hashtag. Say hello. Reply to their tweets. Don’t be shy!
  • Learn How to Write Assignment Posts: Read How to write up assignments like a blogging champ. I would like to see some excellent posts this week. It is important not only to tell us what you did, but how you did it and what you learned from it. Don’t forget to tag your assignment posts properly!!
  • Daily Creates: You must complete at least 3 daily creates this week. Here are the rules:
    • You MUST do the Daily Create on the day it comes out. If not done on the day it is released, it does not count. (Please Note – the e-mail alerts do not synch with the correct Daily Create so you need to visit the website to see what the actual assignment of the day is.)
    • You MUST publish the Daily Creates according to directions. If it calls for using Flickr, Twitter, etc. it must be published in that manner.
    • You MUST tag your Daily Creates correctly and tweet them to @ds106dc.
    • You MUST share your Daily Creates in a blog post or series of posts. Your weekly summary should reference all of your Daily Create activities.
    • Daily Creates shouldn’t take more than 15-20 minutes to complete. If you spend more than that, you’re doing it wrong. Don’t worry about perfection. Aim for getting creative. We are looking for getting practice at making and sharing something on a regular basis.
  • Explore the Assignment Bank: Using the Assignment Bank. do at least 8 stars’ worth of assignments of your choice. Be sure to choose assignments from 3 different categories (visual, audio, etc). 8 stars could be 8 1-star assignments, or a 4-star and two 2-stars, or any other combination. Try to incorporate our Superhero theme into one or two of the assignments you complete. There is no right way to complete these, just use this opportunity to express yourself creatively through digital media. Be sure to document your work using the recommendations described in item #2 above.
  • Form connections with the DS106 community. This week, use the various media to connect with other students learning about digital media through DS106. You may use Twitter, comments on other blogs, or even dedicated blog posts on your own blog in response to something someone else has posted. By all means you can interact with members of the K-State class, but do try to interact with one or two others outside of our institution. You can find people doing the same work we are by monitoring the twitter hashtag #ds106 (people will find you as well if you use it) or by looking at the DS106 Flow page of most recent posts.
  • Summarize the week. Create a summary post of all activities for the week and post it to K-State Online Week 3. (FYI – From here on, I am changing the due date for all future assignments to Mondays at 11:59pm. I don’t know if this will actually work better for you, but I want to give you the weekend plus a day.)

Week 2 – Creativity and Copyright

This week we will focus on:

Creativity & Copyright

All work is due by midnight on Monday, 9/3/2016

Below is a list of what’s to be completed this week.

    1. How has the Internet affected society’s views on Copyright? This week, watch the documentary film Rip! A ReMix Manifesto featured below:

Also, additionally, if time permits, you should watch the short film, Everything is a Remix. Both films have a similar theme, but come from different creators. Write a reflective blog post on what you learned from the films. What is the basic point of view of the creators of these films regarding copyright? Who might hold the opposite point of view? In what ways does copyright impact creativity? What questions did the films raise as you were watching? What ideas in the films contradict what you may have previously known? This class encourages a remix approach to digital storytelling. What considerations should be made when repurposing the work of others? What are some foolproof/safe ways of doing this? What are some more risky approaches? How do you expect to proceed this semester?

  1. Read 2-3 of these articles on Copyright. Discuss on your blog.
    1. A World Without Superheroes.
    2. Photographer sues Getty Images for 1 Billion Dollars!drevil
    3. NFL Fumbles in Copyright Takedown
    4. Katy Perry’s Shark
    5. Mickey Mouse & Deadmau5
    6. 2016 Led Zepplin Suit
    7. Video Streaming depresses ownership
  2. Read Austin Kleon’s post “10 Ways to Share Your Creativity and Get Discovered: Lessons from my book ‘Show Your Work!’” (I have the print copy of the book if you are interested in looking at it.) Also have a quick look at his previous “Steal Like an Artist” book. In a nutshell, these books describe the both the way this course works and a value system that can benefit you throughout your professional career. After looking over these materials, pick one idea that resonated with you and write a blog post in response to that idea. Tell us about the idea and
  3. Complete at least three different Daily Create activities. Be sure to respond by posting your work to twitter with the appropriate information.
  4. Begin commenting and interacting with classmates and other online participants of DS106. You can find them by searching the #ds106 hashtag on Twitter and posting a self-introduction using the same tag. Also, you can view and click on the Current DS106 link.
  5. Summarize the week with links to all of the blog posts and a discussion of what was accomplished. Submit the link to this single summary post to KSOL.

Week 1 – Bootcamp


Welcome to Digital Media Bootcamp, snowflakes!

Yes, I know this is a lot to do. That’s why it is called bootcamp! Without these essential ingredients, we can’t get on with the business of telling digital stories.

This digital literacy course will be built around the topic of Superheroes. Superheroes are a uniquely American invention. Of course throughout history, all cultures have fables, tall tales, and hero stories of all kinds. But the comic book superhero is an American idea.

The course is being offered online

For the first week’s assignment complete the following activities then write and submit a weekly summary by the due date.

  1. Create a personal website complete with your own domain name (e.g. using 3rd party web hosting that supports WordPress. If you already own your own website, fantastic! You may use that for this class if it supports WordPress. If you would like to create your own website but not sure where to begin, it really isn’t that difficult. There are a number of hosting solutions out there. I have used, and there is now a website for schools & students called These offer good support and inexpensive plans. If after doing some research, you are still stuck on this one, let me know. We can discuss it. *One other note – You may choose to use an anonymous internet handle or you can use your real name, whatever you feel comfortable with. If you use a handle, tell the instructor so he knows who you are for grading purposes.
  2. Register Your Blog at the Main ds106 Web Site Once your blog is available on the web (it should be almost immediate) register yourself and your new blog on the DS106 site. You MUST do this in order for everyone to see the posts you’ll be writing for the class. NOTE: In order to register your site, you will need to give a Twitter userid. You may want to skip ahead to the Twitter portion below in #4 if you don’t already have a Twitter account.
  3. Get an Avatar You will need to select an “avatar” for yourself. This is an icon or image that can represent you online (it need not be your face). This should preferably be a square image. Create a “gravatar” for yourself at using the email address you most likely will use for course work (and keep in mind you can associate your gravatar with several email accounts). Many sites will automatically use this image as your avatar.
  4. Set up Your Social Media
    Create accounts and fill out profiles for yourself (if any of these let you set an avatar, use the same icon as you set up on Gravatar) on:

    • Flickr (photo sharing)
      If you are new to Flickr or have no images in your account, you MUST post at least 5 images to your flickr account right away (they can be whatever you want); Flickr may not verify and make your account public until there are 5 images there. When you upload your photos, tag them with ds106. Get in the habit of doing this!
    • Soundcloud (audio publishing)
      Set up an account if you don’t already have one.
    • Google / Youtube (video sharing)
      If you have a Gmail account, you are already set with this. If not create a Google account. This is what will allow you to join any synchronous video discussions we have (in Google Hangouts) and gives you access to YouTube.
    • Vimeo (video sharing)
      Alternatively, if you don’t want to (or can’t) get a YouTube account, feel free to use Vimeo for your videos.
    • Twitter
      Twitter will be one of the main channels for communication in ds106. If you already have an account for personal purposes, you are welcome to use it or create a new account for communication related to this class. Make sure you customize your profile! Send your first message of greeting and be sure to use #ds106 hashtag in your tweets. Learn how to search on the #ds106 hashtag.
    • Instagram (optional) A good way to easily communicate visually through still photos and video. Requires a free mobile device app for publishing.
  5. Make some Multimodal Introductions
    Now that you have all your accounts, it’s time to use them to introduce yourself to the class. Use Twitter, SoundCloud, YouTube, and Flickr (also Instagram if you desire) to introduce yourself to the community, be creative. Once you’ve done that you need to embed them all into a WordPress blog post. Here are some tips for embedding media in WordPress. Be sure to use the #ds106 hashtag to connect with others studying digital media this semester in other locations.
    Are you exhausted yet? There a lot more still. If you wait until the weekend to do your all work you will be crushed!
  6. The Hero’s Journey
    Become familiar with Joseph Campbell’s theory of The Hero’s Journey.
  7. Suggest Some Readings
    After completing the readings/viewings, we’re interested in you suggesting media that you think would be good for us to know about the history and origins of comic book superheroes. What makes these characters so compelling? Why does it seem that there’s constantly a new superhero movie coming out of Hollywood? Tell us why you think it is a good example of digital storytelling. We hope to build some of your suggestions into the course experience. We encourage you to think broadly about the topic.
  8. Tell us your Superhero story.
    What is your superpower? If you don’t actually have a superpower, what power would you prefer to have if you did?
  9. Write your Weekly Summary
    You’ll be completing these summary posts on your blog every week. This week, write a post that shares your reflections on the first week and the genre we’re using. These posts are REALLY important. We use them to grade you every week, so you need to link to other posts you’ve written, embed media you’ve created, and narrate the process of learning that you went through this week. What did you learn? What was harder than you thought it would be? What was easier? What drove you crazy? Why? What did you really enjoy? Why? Please be sure to include your handle(s) in your weekly summary blog post for the various websites & social media that you’ll be using this semester. When your summary is completed, submit a link to it for this assignment on K-State Online. NO EXCEPTIONS. NO LATE WORK ACCEPTED.
  10. Finally, send an e-mail message to me at confirming you are up to speed with what is expected this week. Also, tell me a good time for all of us to connect in real time. I’m thinking Tuesday evenings might work well for me, but I’m open to other suggestions. We might only do video conferencing a couple of times a month, but I want to block out a time for making it happen as required.

Remix/Mashup – Week 12

Create a tutorial that provides detailed instructions on how to complete an assignment in the assignment bank. It can be an assignment you have already completed or one you will complete this week. It can be in video format, or written format with screenshots and photos.

Make a blog post and tag it as directed under “Help Someone Else Do this Assignment” instructions found on each assignment page. Be sure to include both the assignment tag and the tutorial tag. Below is an example, but each assignment’s tags are specific to that individual assignment.



Do 12 stars worth of Mashup/Remix assignments.

Daily Creates

Do two this week


Yes, do comments. In addition to commenting on other students doing the DS106 assignments, if you haven’t done so already, leave comments for kids participating in the Student Blogging Challenge.